The exact cause of the condition isn’t known for certain, but several theories may explain how endometriosis happens. These include:
The main symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, usually associated with menstrual periods, but much more severe than typical menstrual pain. This pain may also increase over time. Symptoms of endometriosis include:
The severity of endometriosis pain is not an indication of the advancement of the condition. Some women with advanced endometriosis have little pain. Others, with mild cases, may experience extreme pain.
Treatment ranges from medication to surgery. Conservative treatments start the process, with surgery remaining a last resort. Pain medications usually fall into the first stage of treatment. If a patient takes maximum doses without relief, hormone therapy is next, as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings may offer symptom relief. Progestin therapy also proves helpful, as do a range of other drugs. Surgical removal of endometrial tissue may be done conventionally or laparoscopically. In extreme cases, hysterectomy may be necessary.